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    The text2vec-transformers module allows you to use a pre-trained language transformer model as a Weaviate vectorization module. Transformer models differ from the Contextionary as they allow you to plug in a pretrained NLP module specific to your use case. This means models like BERT, DilstBERT, RoBERTa, DilstilROBERTa, etc. can be used out-of-the box with Weaviate.

    To use transformers with Weaviate, the text2vec-transformers module needs to be enabled. The models are encapsulated in Docker containers. This allows for efficient scaling and resource planning. Neural-Network-based models run most efficiently on GPU-enabled serves, yet Weaviate is CPU-optimized. This separate-container microservice setup allows you to very easily host (and scale) the model independently on GPU-enabled hardware while keeping Weaviate on cheap CPU-only hardware.

    To choose your specific model, you simply need to select the correct Docker container. There is a selection of pre-built Docker images available, but you can also build your own with a simple two-line Dockerfile.

    How to enable

    Weaviate Cloud Service

    The text2vec-transformers module is not available on the WCS.

    Weaviate open source

    You have three options to select your desired model:

    1. Use any of our pre-built transformers model containers. The models selected in this list have proven to work well with semantic search in the past. These model containers are pre-built by us, and packed in a container. (If you think we should support another model out-of-the-box please open an issue or pull request here).
    2. Use any model from Hugging Face Model Hub. Click here to learn how. The text2vec-transformers module supports any PyTorch or Tensorflow transformer model.
    3. Use any private or local PyTorch or Tensorflow transformer model. Click here to learn how. If you have your own transformer model in a registry or on a local disk, you can use this with Weaviate.

    Option 1: Use a pre-built transformer model container

    Example Docker-compose file

    Note: you can also use the Weaviate configuration tool.

    You can find an example Docker-compose file below, which will spin up Weaviate with the transformers module. In this example, we have selected the sentence-transformers/msmarco-distilroberta-base-v2 which works great for asymmetric semantic search. See below for how to select an alternative model.

    version: '3.4'
        image: semitechnologies/weaviate:1.15.2
        restart: on-failure:0
         - "8080:8080"
          PERSISTENCE_DATA_PATH: "./data"
          DEFAULT_VECTORIZER_MODULE: text2vec-transformers
          ENABLE_MODULES: text2vec-transformers
          TRANSFORMERS_INFERENCE_API: http://t2v-transformers:8080
          CLUSTER_HOSTNAME: 'node1'
        image: semitechnologies/transformers-inference:sentence-transformers-msmarco-distilroberta-base-v2
          ENABLE_CUDA: 0 # set to 1 to enable

    Note that running Weaviate with a text2vec-transformer module but without GPU will be slow. Enable CUDA if you have a GPU available (ENABLE_CUDA=1).

    Alternative: configure your custom setup

    Step 1: Enable the text2vec-transformers module

    Make sure you set the ENABLE_MODULES=text2vec-transformers environment variable. Additionally make this module the default vectorizer, so you don’t have to specify it on each schema class: DEFAULT_VECTORIZER_MODULE=text2vec-transformers

    Important: This setting is now a requirement, if you plan on using any module. So, when using the text2vec-contextionary module, you need to have ENABLE_MODULES=text2vec-contextionary set. All our configuration-generators / Helm charts will be updated as part of the Weaviate v1.2.0 support.

    Step 2: Run your favorite model

    Choose any of our pre-built transformers models (for building your own model container, see below) and spin it up (for example using docker run -itp "8000:8080" semitechnologies/transformers-inference:sentence-transformers-msmarco-distilroberta-base-v2) . Use a CUDA-enabled machine for optimal performance. Alternatively, include this container in the same docker-compose.yml as Weaviate.

    Step 3: Tell Weaviate where to find the inference

    Set the Weaviate environment variable TRANSFORMERS_INFERENCE_API to identify where your inference container is running, for example if Weaviate is running outside of Docker use TRANSFORMERS_INFERENCE_API="http://localhost:8000". Alternatively if Weaviate is part of the same Docker network, e.g. because they are part of the same docker-compose.yml file, you can use Docker networking/DNS, such as TRANSFORMERS_INFERENCE_API=http://t2v-transformers:8080.

    You can now use Weaviate normally and all vectorization during import and search time will be done with the selected transformers model.

    Pre-built images

    You can download a selection of pre-built images directly from Dockerhub. We have chosen publically available models that in our opinion are well suited for semantic search.

    The pre-built models include:

    Model NameDescriptionImage Name
    sentence-transformers/paraphrase-MiniLM-L6-v2 (English, 384d)New! Sentence-Transformer recommendation for best accuracy/speed trade-off. The lower dimensionality also reduces memory requirements of larger datasets in Weaviate.semitechnologies/transformers-inference:sentence-transformers-paraphrase-MiniLM-L6-v2
    sentence-transformers/paraphrase-multilingual-MiniLM-L12-v2 (Multilingual, 384d)New! Sentence-Transformer recommendation for best accuracy/speed trade-off for a multi-lingual model. The lower dimensionality also reduces memory requirements of larger datasets in Weaviate.semitechnologies/transformers-inference:sentence-transformers-paraphrase-multilingual-MiniLM-L12-v2
    sentence-transformers/paraphrase-mpnet-base-v2 (English, 768d)New! Currently the highest overall score (across all benchmarks) on sentence-transformers benchmarks.semitechnologies/transformers-inference:sentence-transformers-paraphrase-mpnet-base-v2
    sentence-transformers/paraphrase-multilingual-mpnet-base-v2 (Multilingual, 768d)New! Currently the highest overall score for a multi-lingual model (across all benchmarks) on sentence-transformers benchmarks.semitechnologies/transformers-inference:sentence-transformers-paraphrase-multilingual-mpnet-base-v2
    sentence-transformers/sentence-transformers/msmarco-distilbert-base-v3 (English, 768d)New! Successor to the widely popular msmarco v2 models. For Question-Answer style queries (given a search query, find the right passages). Our recommendation to be used in combination with the qna-transformers (Answer extraction) module.semitechnologies/transformers-inference:sentence-transformers-msmarco-distilbert-base-v3
    sentence-transformers/stsb-mpnet-base-v2 (English, 768d)New! Highest STSb score on sentence-transformers benchmarks.semitechnologies/transformers-inference:sentence-transformers-stsb-mpnet-base-v2
    sentence-transformers/nli-mpnet-base-v2 (English, 768d)New! Highest Twitter Paraphrases score on sentence-transformers benchmarks.semitechnologies/transformers-inference:sentence-transformers-nli-mpnet-base-v2
    sentence-transformers/stsb-distilbert-base (English)Deprecated. Only use for compatibility, prefer newer model if possible.semitechnologies/transformers-inference:sentence-transformers-stsb-distilbert-base
    sentence-transformers/quora-distilbert-base (English) semitechnologies/transformers-inference:sentence-transformers-quora-distilbert-base
    sentence-transformers/paraphrase-distilroberta-base-v1 (English)Deprecated. Only use for compatibility, prefer newer model if possible.semitechnologies/transformers-inference:sentence-transformers-paraphrase-distilroberta-base-v1
    kiri-ai/distiluse-base-multilingual-cased-et (Multilingual) semitechnologies/transformers-inference:kiri-ai-distiluse-base-multilingual-cased-et
    sentence-transformers/msmarco-distilroberta-base-v2 (English)Deprecated. Only use for compatibility, prefer newer model if possible.semitechnologies/transformers-inference:sentence-transformers-msmarco-distilroberta-base-v2
    sentence-transformers/msmarco-distilbert-base-v2 (English) semitechnologies/transformers-inference:sentence-transformers-msmarco-distilbert-base-v2
    sentence-transformers/stsb-xlm-r-multilingual (Multilingual)Deprecated. Only use for compatibility, prefer newer model if possible.semitechnologies/transformers-inference:sentence-transformers-stsb-xlm-r-multilingual
    sentence-transformers/paraphrase-xlm-r-multilingual-v1 (Multilingual)Deprecated. Only use for compatibility, prefer newer model if possible.semitechnologies/transformers-inference:sentence-transformers-paraphrase-xlm-r-multilingual-v1

    The above image names always point to the latest version of the inference container including the model. You can also make that explicit by appending -latest to the image name. Additionally, you can pin the version to one of the existing git tags of this repository. E.g. to pin distilbert-base-uncased to version 1.0.0, you can use semitechnologies/transformers-inference:distilbert-base-uncased-1.0.0.

    Your favorite model is not included? Open an issue to include it or build a custom image as outlined below.

    Option 2: Use any publically available Huggingface Model

    You can build a Docker image which supports any model from the Huggingface model hub with a two-line Dockerfile. In the following example, we are going to build a custom image for the distilroberta-base model.

    Step 1: Create a Dockerfile

    Create a new Dockerfile. We will name it distilroberta.Dockerfile. Add the following lines to it:

    FROM semitechnologies/transformers-inference:custom
    RUN MODEL_NAME=distilroberta-base ./
    Step 2: Build and tag your Dockerfile.

    We will tag our Dockerfile as distilroberta-inference:

    docker build -f distilroberta.Dockerfile -t distilroberta-inference .
    Step 3: That’s it!

    You can now push your image to your favorite registry or reference it locally in your Weaviate docker-compose.yaml using the Docker tag distilroberta-inference.

    Option 3: Custom build with a private or local model

    You can build a Docker image which supports any model which is compatible with Huggingface’s AutoModel and AutoTokenzier.

    In the following example, we are going to build a custom image for a non-public model which we have locally stored at ./my-model.

    Create a new Dockerfile (you do not need to clone this repository, any folder on your machine is fine), we will name it my-model.Dockerfile. Add the following lines to it:

    FROM semitechnologies/transformers-inference:custom
    COPY ./my-model /app/models/model

    The above will make sure that your model end ups in the image at /app/models/model. This path is important, so that the application can find the model.

    Now you just need to build and tag your Dockerfile, we will tag it as my-model-inference:

    $ docker build -f my-model.Dockerfile -t my-model-inference .

    That’s it! You can now push your image to your favorite registry or reference it locally in your Weaviate docker-compose.yaml using the Docker tag my-model-inference.

    To debug and test if your inference container is working correctly, you can send queries to the vectorizer module’s inference container directly, so you can see exactly what vectors it would produce for which input. To do so, you need to expose the inference container in your docker-compose by adding:

      - "9090:8080"

    to your text2vec-transformers.

    Then you can send REST requests to it directly, e.g. curl localhost:9090/vectors -d '{"text": "foo bar"}' and it will print the created vector directly.

    How to configure

    ​In your Weaviate schema, you must define how you want this module to vectorize your data. If you are new to Weaviate schemas, you might want to check out the getting started guide on the Weaviate schema first.

    For example:

      "classes": [
          "class": "Document",
          "description": "A class called document",
          "moduleConfig": {
            "text2vec-transformers": {
              "poolingStrategy": "masked_mean",
              "vectorizeClassName": false
          "properties": [
              "dataType": [
              "description": "Content that will be vectorized",
              "moduleConfig": {
                "text2vec-transformers": {
                  "skip": false,
                  "vectorizePropertyName": false
              "name": "content"
          "vectorizer": "text2vec-transformers"

    How to use

    • New GraphQL vector search parameters made available by this module can be found here.


          nearText: {
            concepts: ["fashion"],
            distance: 0.6 # prior to v1.14 use "certainty" instead of "distance"
            moveAwayFrom: {
              concepts: ["finance"],
              force: 0.45
            moveTo: {
              concepts: ["haute couture"],
              force: 0.85
          _additional {
            certainty # only supported if distance==cosine.
            distance  # always supported
      import weaviate
    client = weaviate.Client("http://localhost:8080")
    nearText = {
      "concepts": ["fashion"],
      "distance": 0.6, # prior to v1.14 use "certainty" instead of "distance"
      "moveAwayFrom": {
        "concepts": ["finance"],
        "force": 0.45
      "moveTo": {
        "concepts": ["haute couture"],
        "force": 0.85
    result = (
      .get("Publication", ["name", "_additional {certainty distance} "]) # note that certainty is only supported if distance==cosine
      const weaviate = require("weaviate-client");
    const client = weaviate.client({
      scheme: 'http',
      host: 'localhost:8080',
      .withFields('name _additional{certainty distance}') // note that certainty is only supported if distance==cosine
        concepts: ["fashion"],
        distance: 0.6, // prior to v1.14 use certainty instead of distance
        moveAwayFrom: {
          concepts: ["finance"],
          force: 0.45
        moveTo: {
          concepts: ["haute couture"],
          force: 0.85
      package main
    import (
    func main() {
      cfg := weaviate.Config{
        Host:   "localhost:8080",
        Scheme: "http",
      client := weaviate.New(cfg)
      className := "Publication"
      name := graphql.Field{Name: "name"}
      _additional := graphql.Field{
        Name: "_additional", Fields: []graphql.Field{
          {Name: "certainty"}, // only supported if distance==cosine
          {Name: "distance"},  // always supported
      concepts := []string{"fashion"}
      distance := float32(0.6)
      moveAwayFrom := &graphql.MoveParameters{
        Concepts: []string{"finance"},
        Force:    0.45,
      moveTo := &graphql.MoveParameters{
        Concepts: []string{"haute couture"},
        Force:    0.85,
      nearText := client.GraphQL().NearTextArgBuilder().
        WithDistance(distance). // use WithCertainty(certainty) prior to v1.14
      ctx := context.Background()
      result, err := client.GraphQL().Get().
        WithFields(name, _additional).
      if err != nil {
      fmt.Printf("%v", result)
      package technology.semi.weaviate;
    import technology.semi.weaviate.client.Config;
    import technology.semi.weaviate.client.WeaviateClient;
    import technology.semi.weaviate.client.base.Result;
    import technology.semi.weaviate.client.v1.graphql.model.GraphQLResponse;
    import technology.semi.weaviate.client.v1.graphql.query.argument.NearTextArgument;
    import technology.semi.weaviate.client.v1.graphql.query.argument.NearTextMoveParameters;
    import technology.semi.weaviate.client.v1.graphql.query.fields.Field;
    public class App {
      public static void main(String[] args) {
        Config config = new Config("http", "localhost:8080");
        WeaviateClient client = new WeaviateClient(config);
        NearTextMoveParameters moveTo = NearTextMoveParameters.builder()
          .concepts(new String[]{ "haute couture" }).force(0.85f).build();
        NearTextMoveParameters moveAway = NearTextMoveParameters.builder()
          .concepts(new String[]{ "finance" }).force(0.45f)
        NearTextArgument nearText = client.graphQL().arguments().nearTextArgBuilder()
          .concepts(new String[]{ "fashion" })
          .distance(0.6f) // use .certainty(0.7f) prior to v1.14
        Field name = Field.builder().name("name").build();
        Field _additional = Field.builder()
          .fields(new Field[]{
            Field.builder().name("certainty").build(), // only supported if distance==cosine
            Field.builder().name("distance").build(),  // always supported
        Result<GraphQLResponse> result = client.graphQL().get()
          .withFields(name, _additional)
        if (result.hasErrors()) {
      $ echo '{
      "query": "{
            nearText: {
              concepts: [\"fashion\"],
              distance: 0.6, // use certainty instead of distance prior to v1.14
              moveAwayFrom: {
                concepts: [\"finance\"],
                force: 0.45
              moveTo: {
                concepts: [\"haute couture\"],
                force: 0.85
            _additional {
              certainty // only supported if distance==cosine
              distance  // always supported
    }' | curl \
        -X POST \
        -H 'Content-Type: application/json' \
        -d @- \

    🟢 Click here to try out this graphql example in the Weaviate Console.

    Additional information

    Transformers-specific module configuration (on classes and properties)

    You can use the same module-configuration on your classes and properties which you already know from the text2vec-contextionary module. This includes vectorizeClassName, vectorizePropertyName and skip.

    In addition you can use a class-level module config to select the pooling strategy with poolingStrategy. Allowed values are masked_mean or cls. They refer to different techniques to obtain a sentence-vector from individual word vectors as outlined in the Sentence-BERT paper.

    More resources

    If you can’t find the answer to your question here, please look at the:

    1. Frequently Asked Questions. Or,
    2. Knowledge base of old issues. Or,
    3. For questions: Stackoverflow. Or,
    4. For issues: Github. Or,
    5. Ask your question in the Slack channel: Slack.