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This page explains what modules are, and what purpose they serve in Weaviate.


Weaviate adopts a modularized structure, where for examples functionalities such as vectorization or backups are carried out by optional modules.

The core of Weaviate, without any modules attached, is a pure vector-native database. Weaviate modules introduction

Data is stored in Weaviate as the combination of an object and its vector, and these vectors are searchable by the provided vector index algorithm. Without any vectorizer modules attached, Weaviate does not know how to vectorize an object, i.e. how to calculate the vectors given an object.

Depending on the type of data you want to store and search (text, images, etc.), and depending on the use case (like search, question answering, etc., depending on language, classification, ML model, training set, etc.), you can choose and attach a vectorizer module that best fits your use case. Or, you can "bring your own" vectors to Weaviate.

Available module typesโ€‹

This graphic shows the available modules of the latest Weaviate version (v1.19.6).

Broadly, we categorize them into one of:

  • Vectorization modules,
  • Vectorization + additional functionality modules, and
  • Other modules

Weaviate module ecosystem

Vectorization modules (Dense Retriever modules)โ€‹

Vectorization modules, like the text2vec-*, multi2vec-* or img2vec-* modules, transform data into vectors. These modules are also called "Dense Retriever" modules. Retrievers function as a filter to quickly find a relevant set of data to the query.

Dense retrievers vs. sparse retrieversโ€‹

Sparse vector retrievers for the task of finding relevant data (by calculating the similarity of two pieces of data) in a database are for example TF-IDF or BM25. These retrievers are not trainable; instead they rely on word frequency in documents. This type of retrievers are not possible as Weaviate modules, because the implementation sits deep in the core of Weaviate (BM25 will be released soon!).

Dense vector retrievers are a relatively new approach to data retrieval, which usually outperforms traditional sparse retrieval methods because they take semantics into account and they are trainable. Dense vector retrievers can be chosen as Weaviate modules. Depending on the type of data you want to store and search (text, images, etc), and depending on the use case domain (science, healthcare, common daily language, etc), you can choose and attach a dense retriever (vectorization) module that best fits your use case.

Modules with additional functionalities (Reader or Generator modules)โ€‹

Reader or Generator modules can be used on top of a Retriever/Vectorization module. A Reader module takes the set of relevant documents that are retrieved by the Retriever module, and extracts a piece of relevant information per document. An example Reader module is qna-transformers module, which extracts an answer directly from a document that is retrieved by a Retriever module. A Generator module would, on the other hand, use language generation to generate an answer from the given document.

Other modulesโ€‹

These include those such as gcs-backup or text-spellcheck.


Modules can be dependent on other modules to be present. For example, to use the qna-transformers module, exactly one text vectorization module is required.

Weaviate without modulesโ€‹

Weaviate can also be used without any modules, as pure vector native database and search engine. If you choose not to include any modules, you will need to enter a vector for each data entry. You can then search through the objects by a vector as well.

Custom modulesโ€‹

It is possible for anyone to create a custom module for use with Weaviate. Click here to see how you can create and use your own modules.

More Resourcesโ€‹

If you can't find the answer to your question here, please look at the:

  1. Frequently Asked Questions. Or,
  2. Knowledge base of old issues. Or,
  3. For questions: Stackoverflow. Or,
  4. For more involved discussion: Weaviate Community Forum. Or,
  5. We also have a Slack channel.